ITO DSSC solar cells made of a transparent chlorophyll-based nanoparticle alloy (2023)

ITO DSSC solar cells made of a transparent chlorophyll-based nanoparticle alloy

ITO DSSC solar cells made of a transparent chlorophyll-based nanoparticle alloy (1)

Muslim*ITO DSSC solar cells made of a transparent chlorophyll-based nanoparticle alloy (2) |Nurasyah Dewi NapitupuluITO DSSC solar cells made of a transparent chlorophyll-based nanoparticle alloy (3) |Nuruhu Daraman

Department of Physical Education, Tadulako University, Palu 94118, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

Department of Agribusiness, Tadulako University, Palu 94118, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

Author's email for correspondence:


462-468 (view, others).




2 March 2022 r



February 10, 2023



April 30, 2023



open access


Combination of optimization of optical properties of transparent ITO nanoparticles with optical and morphological properties of TiO2In addition to the absorption properties of chlorophyll dyes, they play a very important role in the operation of DSSC photovoltaic cells. Therefore, it is necessary to characterize these properties in order to maximize DSSC solar efficiency. The research phase includes manufacturing, characterization and performance testing. Titanium dioxide2A thin layer is created by coating titanium dioxide2on ITO and soaked in chlorophyll dye. DSSC alloy solar cells have optical, electrical and morphological properties. Characterize the optical properties, reflection and absorption of chlorophyll dyes using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The electrical properties were characterized by measuring the coating voltage, DSSC solar cell efficiency and grain size morphology by XRD. When the annealing temperature was 50°C, the absorption power of chlorophyll was 20.900 mg/L, and the efficiency was 0.038%, the crystallite size of the transparent nanoparticle layer was 54.87, and DSSC solar cell efficiency was optimized. Grain size 48.71, annealing temperature 60°C, chlorophyll absorption 73.20 mg/l, and yield 0.005%. Grain size 44.46, annealing temperature 50°C, chlorophyll absorption 34.6 mg/l, yield 0.020%. Crystallite size, annealing temperature and absorption of transparent nanoparticles by chlorophyll were found to influence the efficiency of DSSC solar cells.


DSSC yield, chlorophyll color, annealing, ITO grain size

1. Introduction

Solar cells are very expensive, so society cannot afford them. Therefore, it is necessary to consider alternative solutions for the production of photovoltaic cells in a simple, light and relatively cheap way [1]. Solar energy can be converted into electricity by using plant leaves as a DSSC dye for chlorophyll leaves [2, 3].

This research is very important because its results can make a huge contribution to low-cost and high-efficiency electricity supply, which can be used to overcome the current national energy crisis in Indonesia [4].

A solar cell is a mechanism based on the solar cell effect that absorbs photons generated by radiation and then converts them into electricity [5]. The charges in the material are due to the absorption of the material.

Currently, a very promising source of energy are dye solar cells (DSSC), which are the most advanced technology for producing energy from solar cells [6]. The main component of DSSC are leaves, which contain a large amount of chlorophyll due to photosynthesis. Solar cells using natural chlorophyll-based dyes have a higher tendency to degrade [7]. The chlorophyll content in the leaves allows more electrons to flow, creating an electric current.

Chlorophyll absorbs the energy of sunlight into molecules and releases electrons from water molecules and protons from oxygen [8]. Photosynthesis reactions are as follows:

6 $ {CO}_2+{H}_2 \mathrm{O} \frac{{sunlight}}{{chlorophyll}} {C}_6 \mathrm{H}_{12} {O}_6+6 {O} $2 (1)

Two electrons are released during photosynthesis, the more electrons are released [9]. The electrons released in photosynthesis are shown in Figure 1.


ITO DSSC solar cells made of a transparent chlorophyll-based nanoparticle alloy (4)

picture 1.Releasing electrons from chlorophyll leaves

Optimization of solar cell efficiency depends not only on natural dyes with high absorption or high chlorophyll content, but also on the combination, i.e. the electrical and optical properties of the transparent conductive layers used [10, 11]. In order to optimize the production of solar cells, which cannot do without the permeability of transparent conductors, energy-absorbing dyes are used [12, 13].

The electron release of the chlorophyll combined with the light transmittance level of the transparent conductive alloy and the crystallinity level of the cambium largely determine the efficiency of the solar cell. The grain size and the level of crystals formed have a great influence on the rate of diffusion of the natural dye chlorophyll.

The release of electrons in solar cells and the improvement of solar cell efficiency also greatly depends on the transparent conductors used. According to the results of research on solar cells, a good transparent conductor is a thin layer with a high reflectivity. The ITO used in the previous study had an anti-reflection index of 87.67% and a nanoparticle size of 48.71Å. The efficiency of photovoltaic efficiency obtained on papaya leaves was 0.69% [14]. With transparent conductivity as well as concentration, grain size and immersion time in TiO2these parameters will change the pore size characteristic of the surface, which will increase the color absorption, which means an increase in light absorption [15, 16]. Therefore, pigment absorption is promising for chlorophyll phytochromes as well as absorbent materials [17]. A dye showing some progress is DSSC TiO2[18]. To fabricate high-performance DSSCs, several components need to be optimized, including the optimization of the anti-reflection ITO, the broadening of the energy bands and the enlargement of the grains formed by TiO22, TiO2 concentration2and immersion time in TiO22.This study will use leaves with a high content of chlorophyll, i.e. spinach leaves, cassava leaves and mango leaves, and indium tin oxide (ITO) reflective coatings and DSSC TiO22[19, 20].

Preliminary results of researchers [18] showed that such an approach could potentially be used in the development of DSSC photovoltaic cells. Therefore, several experimental parameters that affect solar cell performance will be optimized, namely optical properties, electrical properties, dye concentration. Of course, the concentration of the electrolyte, the annealing of all the components that make up the solar cell also affect the performance of the solar cell. Solar cells [21, 22].

In order to obtain the best DSSC solar cell, all its components are optimized in terms of optical properties, electrical properties, natural color concentration, electrolyte concentration, annealing of the manufactured DSSC solar cell.

2. literature review

Dye solar cells (DSSC) are a promising new generation of high-efficiency solar cells due to low-cost materials and a very simple manufacturing process. The DSSC function is due to the interaction of the TiO2 anode and cathode2The surface is coated with a photosensitive paint and then surrounded by a sea of ​​electrolyte [21].

The results of research on the absorption of photon energy by natural colors are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 3 and Figure 4 explain the electron flow process. Photons of different energies of sunlight hit the cell and penetrate the paint layer because the tin oxide (FTO) and TiO2Nanocrystals are transparent to visible light. During this process, holes created by photon excitation remain in the molecule because the dye is separated from all other energy levels. The holes are eventually filled with electrons from the ions of the electrolyte. At the same time, the oxidizing dye is reduced by iodide to give triiodide. The triiodide diffuses to the counter electrode and accepts electrons from the external load, regenerates the iodide, and then the whole process will ensure the flow of electrons from the working electrode to the external circuit.


ITO DSSC solar cells made of a transparent chlorophyll-based nanoparticle alloy (5)

photo 2.Magnified cross-section of a dye-sensitized solar cell

3. png

ITO DSSC solar cells made of a transparent chlorophyll-based nanoparticle alloy (6)

photo 3.DSSC mechanism of action

4. png

ITO DSSC solar cells made of a transparent chlorophyll-based nanoparticle alloy (7)

Figure 4.DSSC mechanism of action

The current in the DSSC was generated by injecting electrons $\left(\mathrm{S}^*\left|\mathrm{TiO}_2 \rightarrow \mathrm{S}-\right| \mathrm{TiO}_2+ \mathrm{ e } -\left(\mathrm{TiO}_2\right)\right)$ After photoexcitation of the electrons of the dye molecule by light radiation ($\mathrm{S}+\mathrm{hv} \rightarrow \mathrm {S } ^ *$). Electron capture by acceptor compounds in the electrolyte ($3 \mathrm{~S}^{-}\left|\mathrm{TiO}_2+I_3^{-} \rightarrow \mathrm{S}\right| \mathrm{TiO2 } _2+ 3 \mathrm{I}^{-}$). Recombination (electron capture) occurs between the electrons in the conduction band and the $I_3^{-}$ compound, which reduces the value of the photon current generated by the DSSC [23]. The absorption of the obtained mulberry dyeing extract is shown in Figure 5. The colored extract has the best ability to absorb red-violet light with a wavelength of 510 nm, and the absorbed light is green light.

5. png

ITO DSSC solar cells made of a transparent chlorophyll-based nanoparticle alloy (8)

Figure 5.Mulberry extract color absorption

6. png

ITO DSSC solar cells made of a transparent chlorophyll-based nanoparticle alloy (9)

Figure 6.Anton color absorption

The color absorption spectrum is shown in Fig. 5. The absorption spectrum of chlorophyll leaf extract is in the wavelength range of 190-690 nm, the maximum absorption peak of chlorophyll a is at 300 nm, and the maximum absorption peak of chlorophyll b is at 520 nm. It was observed that the dye best absorbs light with a wavelength of about 300 nm, while TiO2Absorption is best in the range of 300 nm to 450 nm and 520 nm.

Absorption results of black glutinous rice, turmeric and hibiscus extracts at wavelengths from 200 nm to 800 nm in Figure 6. Black glutinous rice with maximum absorption at 310 nm, turmeric at 350 nm and hibiscus flower at 420 nm.

The results of efficiency tests of DSSC photovoltaic cells with papaya chlorophyll showed that the highest efficiency, i.e. 0.00071%, was achieved when the granulation of the ITO substrate was 44.46 [24].

3. The method

3.1 Test scheme

7. png

ITO DSSC solar cells made of a transparent chlorophyll-based nanoparticle alloy (10)

Figure 7.Schematic representation of the research process

Figure 7 Research process, as above. Photosynthesis-based DSCC fabrication using transparent conductors from ITO deposition followed by TiO2 coating2on vrhu ITO. The result is a TiO coating2A natural leaf extract containing chlorophyll is deposited on the ITO. These results are then analyzed with XRD and UV-VIS to see the grain size and thickness of the layer formed. Then, the crystal structure and absorption were also analyzed. Based on the above analysis results, the results of the DSCC performance analysis are then analyzed.

3.2 Manufacturing process of DSSC solar panels

3.2.1 Creating a DSSC layer

(1) Production of dyes

The principle of extracting chlorophyll from papaya leaves, mango leaves and orange leaves is used to make dyes. Each sheet weighs 10 grams. Then, each leaf was washed with distilled water and dried at room temperature for 15 minutes. Then grind the pure chlorophyll leaves with a porcelain cup until smooth and place them in 50 ml of 70% alcohol solvent.

(2) Production of titanium dioxide2pasta

in the production of titanium dioxide2For a paste, add 2.0 g of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to 13.0 ml of distilled water and stir with a magnetic stirrer for about 30 minutes until the solution thickens and becomes homogeneous. PVA is used as a binder in the production of titanium dioxide2paste. Then add 0.5 g of titanium dioxide2Weigh the powder and add TiO2 to the resulting suspension2Powder ratio to 5g TiO22Mix 15 drops or 0.75 ml of PVA with a spatula and filter through gauze.

(3) Titanium dioxide2confused

Titanium dioxide2layer coated on ITO glass with an area of ​​2×2 cm for TiO2Apply a layer about 10 nm thick to the ITO surface. The sides of the ITO are taped as a barrier. TiO as previously prepared2Put the paste on the non-sticky glass surface of the ITO, then smooth the paste on the surface of the ITO. Titanium dioxide thickness2The applied layer corresponds to the thickness of the adhesive tape used. Titanium dioxide2The resulting layer was left for 30 minutes, then the tape was removed and the layer was allowed to dry at room temperature to dry. For the production of titanium dioxide2The layer is more crystalline and annealed with an electric heater lined with aluminum foil. Each color is annealed at 50°C. After cooling to room temperature, each sample with each dye was dropped onto ITO glass deposited on TiO22make 4 kapi make TiO2The layer is completely covered with paint and left to dry. Then rinse with NaCl and dry.

(4) Administration of electrolytes

Add up to 4 drops or 0.25 ml of electrolyte with a pipette. The electrolyte solution is used to transfer electrons from the carbon to the dye.

3.2.2 DSSC Executive Analysis

DSSC cell testing is based on the direct light under light method. The performance and efficiency of the cell is achieved when the solar cell object is exposed to a certain intensity of light at the top electrode (anode).

The study used a constant intensity light source. The recorded DSSC output results are open circuit voltage (Voc) and short circuit current (ISC) DSSC. DSSC output parameters include open circuit voltage (open circuit) Voc, short circuit current Isc, which can be known by measurement.

4. Results and discussion

4.1 layer view

The produced samples will be analyzed using UV.Vis and XRD results for coating thickness, reflectance, absorption, grain size and coating crystallization level.

4.2 Absorption of chlorophyll dye

Chlorophyll absorption tests were performed at a wavelength of 300-800 nm using a Shimadzu UV-1601 spectrophotometer. Measure the absorbance of chlorophyll at λ using a spectrophotometer649Nano i Lambda665Nano. From these results, the amount of chlorophyll was calculatedA, chlorophyllB, and the total chlorophyll contained in the color by the equation,

Klorofil $\boldsymbol{a}=13,7$(OD665)-5,76(OD649)

Chlorophyll $\boldsymbol{b}=$25.8 (OD649)-7.60 (OD665)

Kupni klorofil $=20,0(\mathrm{OD} 665)+6,10(\mathrm{OD} 665)$ (2)


OD = optical density

Calculations of the adsorption of chlorophyll dye on papaya leaves (sample A), orange leaf dye (sample B) and mango leaf dye (sample C) were carried out using equation 1 (2). The results of the absorption analysis of chlorophyll dyes are presented in Table 1.

Table 1.Chlorophyll dye absorption



Chlorofil mg/l

blood 665





papaya leaves






lime leaves












The results of the analysis showed that the number of leaves that released chlorophyll and then combined with TiO22Increased in papaya leaves. These results suggest that papaya chlorophyll absorbs more light and thus DSSC produces the most significant power with papaya chlorophyll.

8. png

ITO DSSC solar cells made of a transparent chlorophyll-based nanoparticle alloy (11)

Number 8.Adsorbed titanium dioxide2(green), dye (red) and sensitized TiO22Thin layer (blue) on ITO glass

Titanium dioxide absorption2(green), paint and titanium dioxide2The thin layer (red) on the ITO glass (blue) is shown in Fig. 8. The picture shows that the largest peak in the formed TiO layer2at 555 nm or is present in chlorophyllB.

4.3 Transparent ITO reflective and transmittance coating

Figure 9 shows the results of UV-Vis spectroscopy for the reflectance and transmittance of one of the transparent layer samples. Transmission and reflectance are shown in Figure 9. The maximum transmittance at 670 nm is 83% and the maximum reflectance at 572 nm is 37%.

9. png

ITO DSSC solar cells made of a transparent chlorophyll-based nanoparticle alloy (12)

Figure 9.ITO transmittance and reflection

4.4 Reflection, transmission and absorption of layers

The reflectance (R) and transmittance (T) spectra measured by the spectrometer will first look for layer thickness using the equations 2nd = (m+1/2) and 2nd = mλ. Substituting these two equations we get:

$n d=\frac{\lambda_1 \lambda_2}{\lambda_1-\lambda_2}$ (3)

With refractive index n, thickness d, _1 maximum wavelength of the first peak, _2 wavelength of the second peak. The refractive index used in table 2 is the average refractive index from table 2, which is the peak value of the first wave and the peak value of the second wave, which is 2.50. Based on equation (3), the thickness of the thin layer is as follows:

$d=\frac{704-572}{2,5(704-572)}=220 267 \mathrm{~nm}$

The data needed to determine the layer thickness are shown in Table 2. According to the analysis results in the table, the thickness of the transparent layer was obtained at 631.22 nm.

Table 2.Layer thickness analysis results


value (nanometer)

Reflectance (%)

loma index





minimum value








minimum value








4.5 Large granular layer

X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements can reveal the crystal structure and grain size formed on the DSSC layer. Find the crystallographic orientation by comparing it with the reference taken from "Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction StandardsXRD results are shown in Figure 6.

10. png

ITO DSSC solar cells made of a transparent chlorophyll-based nanoparticle alloy (13)

Figure 10.ITO XRD thin film results

From Figure 10, it is clear that the layer formed has a very thin half-peak, so the layer can be said to be crystalline. The formation of layers in crystalline form is caused by annealing during coating. Annealing can combine oxygen and titanium free atoms with other atoms present during coating, or diffusion by heating.

11. png

ITO DSSC solar cells made of a transparent chlorophyll-based nanoparticle alloy (14)

Figure 11.Image of titanium dioxide2i farba/TiO22sample [21]

The coating scheme of the researchers' DSSC solar cell research results is shown in Figure 11. ITO material is formed on top of ordinary glass, and TiO is formed on the ITO layer.2layer. The same protocol was also used in this study.

According to the XRD results of the transparent conducting layer, the size of the grain formed in the film can be determined by the equation $D=\frac{0.9 \lambda}{\beta \cos \theta}$ [25], where D is the grain size ( Ǻ), wavelength, width Diffraction lines are measured at half the maximum intensity (radians) and the diffraction angle. For XRD data, the grain size of each sample = 1.5406 (Ǻ) is shown in Table 3.

Grain side analysis results showed that the large grain sample was the ITO layer used to dye papaya leaves. The size of the edge of the grains can make the mesh larger, which will make it easier for the dye to enter the gaps between the ITO grains. The more dye diffuses into the voids of the ITO layer, the more electrons are released, resulting in better electricity.

Table 3.Film grain size calculation results

a sample

Kut (2θ)

Ponek Width (B) (degrees)

grain size(Ǻ)













Table 4.Functional strength analysis of DSSC large transparent granules in leaf chlorophyll

ITO grain size (Ǻ)

Color input (mg/L)

strength (10th-9) he said

egg (%)













Based on the crystallite size and dye uptake analysis for each ITO in each papaya leaf, orange leaf and mango leaf extract, the resulting electrical power and yield are shown in Table 4.

DSSC transformation efficiency values ​​resulted in the highest DSSC yield of papaya leaf extract. This result is proportional to the highest absorption, because the greater the share of absorbed photons, the higher the DSSC conversion efficiency. This is also confirmed by the UV-Vis properties of the dyes adsorbed on the TiO2 surface2The orange leaf extract showed the highest absorption. This is also consistent with the ITO grain size in the XRD characteristics of the substrate used for TiO22Shell. Grain size of ITO and TiO22The grains can diffuse into the interstices of the ITO grains. The results showed that TiO22is the optimal semiconductor material for DSSC applications and its performance is related to its properties such as bandgap, electron mobility, electron injection rate and static dielectric constant [24]. Thin semiconductor layers play an important role in DSSC operation.

Another study showed higher DSSC efficiency due to greater dye uptake on TiO22surfaces [19]. The results can be explained by the fact that the photons that are absorbed and converted into electrons are the most abundant when the absorbed power is greatest. Absorptive dyes on the surface of titanium dioxide2It mainly affects the visible area. High efficiency is due to the maximum output current. This situation influenced the high efficiency of papaya leaf transformation.

The overall performance of the DSSC depends on the light absorption capacity of the dye sensitizer and the diffusion of electrons emitted by the TiO22Movie. Its high absorption coefficient enables adsorption on the surface of TiO2This absorption facilitates the transfer of substitution electrons from the dye to TiO22conduction band, and ultimately improve the efficiency of DSSC [21, 26].

Overall DSSC performance or DSSC efficiency depends on the characteristics, optimization and compatibility of each DSSC component, in particular the photoanode which plays an important role in the charge generation and transfer process. To improve the power conversion efficiency of DSSCs, nanostructured titanium oxide pores with a wide band gap and high exciton binding energy are commonly used in photoanode configurations. Large surface area or grain size of ITO/TiO nanostructure2Make sure you absorb a lot of dye particles to effectively harvest the radiation energy. Strong dye absorption into nanostructured TiO22Efficient electron injection into the TiO2 conduction band is required2semiconductor.

5. at the end

Based on the performance analysis and performance test results of the DSSC solar cells, optimization of the performance of the DSSC solar cells was achieved with a grain size of the transparent nanoparticle layer of 54.87 Å and an annealing temperature of 50 °C. With a chlorophyll absorption capacity of 20,900 mg/l, the DSSC solar cell has an efficiency of 0.0380%. The absorptive capacity of chlorophyll with a particle size of 48.71 Ǻ was 73.20 mg/l, and the obtained efficiency of the DSSC solar cell was 0.0050%. Particle size 44.46 Chlorophyll absorption capacity 34.6 mg/l Solar cell efficiency DSSC 0.0239%. Thus, it can be concluded that the particle size of the transparent nanoparticles and the absorption of chlorophyll dyes affect the efficiency of DSSC photovoltaic cells.


greek symbol


efficiency, %


XRD half-width result, st


Scattering angle, rad


wavelength, nanometer


layer thickness unit


Chlorophyll absorptionAColors, mg. Elevator-1


Chlorophyll absorptionBColors, mg. Elevator-1






wave number


loma index


particle size, nano



indium tin oxide

Titanium dioxide2

Titanium dioxide

Outer diameterλ 665

Optical density at 665 wavelength


visible under UV light


X-ray diffraction

Volatile organic compounds

Open circuit voltage, mV


Short-circuit current, mA


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How does a DSSC work? ›

The working principle of DSSC involves four basic steps: light absorption, electron injection, transportation of carrier, and collection of current. The following steps are involved in the conversion of photons into current (as shown in Fig.

What are the components of dye sensitized solar cells? ›

The basic components of DSSCs primarily consist of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film-coated glass substrates, dye, photoanode, electrolytes, and counter electrode.

How can we improve the efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells? ›

Enhancing the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell by increasing the light trapping and decreasing the electron-hole recombination rate due to Ag@TiO2 core-shell photoanode structure.

What is the disadvantage of DSSC? ›

The major disadvantage to the DSSC design is the use of the liquid electrolyte, which has temperature stability problems. At low temperatures the electrolyte can freeze, halting power production and potentially leading to physical damage.

Can dye-sensitized solar cells generate electricity in the dark? ›

Graphical abstract. Dye-sensitized solar cells that can generate electricity in the daytime and dark are fabricated by combining long persistence phosphors with mesoscopic TiO2 photoanodes.

How long do dye-sensitized solar cells last? ›

20-30 years of Si-based counterparts).

What material is solar cell coated with? ›

Crystalline silicon (c-Si) has been the material most used for photovoltaic conversion of solar photons to electric current.

What are the best dyes for DSSC? ›

Families of natural dyes that have been explored for sensitizers applications in DSSCs include betanin or betalain [70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78], chlorophyll [72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80], and anthocyanin [28, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94].

Can you solar dye without a mordant? ›

You will need to mordant your fiber before solar dyeing it. I recommend using alum to do so.

Why TiO2 is used in DSSC? ›

TiO2 is the most used semiconductor in DSSC structure because of its properties such as wide band gap energy, high conduction band edge, large surface area, and excellent chemical stability. However, the electron mobility is quite low (0.1–4 cm2/V s at 300 K) compared to other oxide semiconductors.

How to make tio2 paste for DSSC? ›

TiO2 paste is prepared by using ethanol as a solvent. A thin layer of TiO2 paste is coated on ITO conducting glass, which acts as a working electrode. The counter electrode is prepared by pencil graphite paste using ethanol as a solvent and coated on ITO conducting glass.

What fruits are dye-sensitized solar cells? ›

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCC) were assembled by using natural dye by using two different fruit which contain anthocyanine dye: red grapes and orange. The performance of DSCC is based on natural dyes extracted from fruits .

What is the best achieved solar cell efficiency? ›

What is the most efficient type of solar panel? Monocrystalline solar panels are the most efficient type of panel compared to polycrystalline and thin-film options. Monocrystalline solar panels deliver between 15% to 22% efficiency.

How is DSSC different from solar cell? ›

In a traditional solar cell, Si provides two functions: acts as source of photoelectrons and provides electric field to separate the charges and create a current. But, in DSSCs, the bulk of semiconductor is only used as a charge transporter and the photoelectrons are provided by photosensitive dyes.

What are the disadvantages of dye sensitized solar cells compared to conventional solar cells? ›

What are the two limitations of Dye sensitized solar cells? The major limitations of dye sensitized cells are as follows: The electrolyte can freeze at low temperatures. The liquid within the electrolyte can expand at high temperatures, making it difficult to seal the panel.

What is the conclusion of DSSC? ›


Addition of clathrin protein to DSSC will fill cavities between TiO2 molecules causing a reduction in the cavity between TiO2 molecules so that the transfer of electrons between TiO2 molecules becomes faster and reduces the recombination rate of electrons.

What is the performance of DSSC? ›

The highest current, voltage, and efficiency values in DSSC with 75% clathrin protein addition are short circuit current ( ), open circuit voltage ( ), and efficiency ( ) of 5247 mA, 657 mV, and 1465%.

What is the record efficiency of DSSC? ›

Scientists have increased the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells beyond 15% in direct sunlight and 30% in ambient light conditions.

Which is better DSSC or SSC? ›

Difference between DSSC & SSC

One key noticeable difference in the application requirement for DSSC and SSC is the age difference. DSSC permits much older applicants (up to 40 for medical doctors) while SSC is for applicants between the ages of 23 & 27.

What is the power output of a DSSC? ›

Power output of a DSSC is closely related to the value of current and voltage generated at the time of measurement. If the value of the current and voltage generated at the measurement level is high, the power generated is also high and the opposite is true.

Which silicon material is the best for making the PV solar cell? ›

Crystalline silicon cells are made of silicon atoms connected to one another to form a crystal lattice. This lattice provides an organized structure that makes conversion of light into electricity more efficient.

Which material has highest solar cell efficiency? ›

Detailed Solution
Solar Cell TypeEfficiencyDisadvantage
Monocrystalline Solar Panels~20%Expensive
Polycrystalline Solar Panels~15%Sensitive to high temperatures, lower lifespan & slightly less space efficiency
Polycrystalline germanium~3-4%Less efficiency
Amorphous Silicon Solar Panels~7-10%shorter warranties & lifespan
Mar 30, 2023

What are the advantages of DSSC over solar cell? ›

As DSSCs are free of expensive silicon, the cost of their manufacture is significantly lower than conventional silicon based solar cells. In spite of the cost advantage, their commercial use has been plagued by the relatively poor chemical stability and low photo conversion efficiency (PCE).

Which natural dye used in DSSC? ›

Abstract. Here, three natural dyes were extracted from different fruits and leaves and used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Chlorophyll was extracted from spinach leaves using acetone as a solvent. Anthocyanin was extracted from red cabbage and onion peels using water.

What synthetic dyes are used in DSSC? ›

The most common of synthetic dye used ruthenium based metal complexes like N719 and black dye[11]. They are susceptible to absorb the broad spectrum of light and can achieve the high conversion efficiency.

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