The addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to a diesel engine improves the efficiency of biodiesel (2023)

The addition of aluminum increases the efficiency of biodiesel2Europa3Nanoparticles in diesel engines

The addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to a diesel engine improves the efficiency of biodiesel (1)

Hm. AbdillaThe addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to a diesel engine improves the efficiency of biodiesel (2) |new amulet*The addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to a diesel engine improves the efficiency of biodiesel (3) |Andy Owen Eka PutraThe addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to a diesel engine improves the efficiency of biodiesel (4) |KoranThe addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to a diesel engine improves the efficiency of biodiesel (5)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hasanuddin University, Bontomarannu, Gowa 92171, Indonesia

Author's email for correspondence:


423-430 (view, other).




February 16, 2023



April 5, 2023



(Video) Algregate

April 30, 2023



open access


Biodiesel is used as a renewable and environmentally friendly alternative fuel. Biodiesel has several disadvantages compared to diesel fuel: a lower-calorie energy source, volatility, and viscosity. One attempt to reduce the weakness of biodiesel is the use of additives. These studies aimed to determine the performance of diesel engines by adding nanoparticles to biodiesel. Various test specimens including B30, B30+Al were used in this study2Europa330 ppm, B30+Al2Europa350 ppm, B30+Al2Europa370 ppm, B30+Al2Europa390 ppm Each sample was tested on a diesel engine. The results showed that the fuel mixture containing Al2Europa3Under a 3 kg load, the nanoparticles increased cylinder pressure by 13%, net heat release by 41% and brake thermal efficiency by 76%. The resulting smoke and fuel economy are better than the B30.


Nanoparticles, biodiesel, engine performance and emissions, B30

1. Introduction

With population growth and economic growth, the world's demand for energy continues to grow. By 2040, energy demand in non-OECD countries will reach 64% of the 739 trillion British thermal units [1, 2]. Similar to Indonesia, domestic energy demand is expected to increase by an average of 3.5%. Demand for each type was dominated by heating oil, which grew on average by 2.8% annually. This is because fuel technology devices are still more cost-effective than those using other energy sources, especially in transport, industry, trade and energy [3].

In the field of transportation, the number of motor vehicles in Indonesia is increasing year by year. According to the data of the Central Statistical Office for 2021, the number of motor vehicles in Indonesia is 143,797,227 compared to 136,137,451 in 2020 [4]. This causes greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Actual greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 are 1.0504 billion tons of CO2e[5]. The impact of greenhouse gases is a serious problem worldwide. One attempt to reduce vehicle emissions is the use of biofuels as environmentally friendly alternatives, such as biogas [6], bioethanol [7] and biodiesel [8]. Biodiesel has environmental benefits such as CO levels2The emissions of the produced exhaust gases are 72% lower than in the case of diesel fuel, they are non-toxic, renewable, do not contain sulfur and are environmentally friendly [9]. Biodiesel is already used in many countries as a blend with diesel fuel. As of 2020, Indonesia uses a biodiesel called B30 (30% diesel/biodiesel blend) according to Presidential Decree no. 22/2017 [10, 11].

The use of biodiesel in vehicles also has many advantages, including improved combustion efficiency and reduced carbon monoxide (CO) emissions [12]. Biodiesel does not contain sulfur or aromatic compounds that contribute to the increase in exhaust emissions from diesel engines [13] and increases the cetane number, which shortens the ignition delay time [14]. Biodiesel blends, even biodiesel, after minor modifications can be used in diesel engines [15], and biodiesel improves lubricity, thus extending the life of engine components [16]. However, biodiesel has several disadvantages compared to diesel: low calorific value, low volatility and high viscosity [17]. Low volatility and high viscosity can lead to superdetonation [18].

Performance and emission studies of B30 biodiesel have already been investigated. This study compared several diesel fuels, including B30 biodiesel and diesel fuel. The results of this study showed that CO2B30 biodiesel has lower emissions than diesel. This is due to the low sulfur content of B30. However, the power and torque seem to be lower than in the case of diesel oil [19]. This is due to the poor atomization of the fuel due to the high viscosity of biodiesel [20]. In other studies, it has been explained that the high viscosity of B30 increases the ignition delay compared to diesel [21].

One attempt to reduce the weakness of biodiesel is to use additives to overcome the high viscosity. Earlier studies used the addition of potassium hydroxide (KOH) added to biodiesel. Parsley oil with a viscosity of 14.9 mm was used for the tests2/s, with the addition of KOH the viscosity decreases to 4.77 mm2/Other. This value is in accordance with ASTM D6751 [22]. Viscosity value reduction was also performed using Ni/zeolite additives [23]. With a decrease in the viscosity value, the volatility value will be high [24]. The use of copper oxide2The nanoparticle additive increases the calorific value by up to 6% compared to that without CuO2Nanoparticle additives mixed with B20 biodiesel [25]. Using the same basic additives, nanoparticles and aluminum2Europa3Cylinder pressure and heat release rate were reported to be 6% and 13% higher for type B20 compared to B20 without Al2Europa3connection. In addition, specific fuel consumption was reduced by 7.3%, thermal efficiency was increased by 4.7%, and the calorific value of the highest concentration was increased by 6% compared to B20 without additives [26]. This is due to the high content of oxygen present in biodiesel blends and nanoparticles, where oxygen supports a better combustion process [27]. There are several types of nanoparticles, Al2Europa3Compared to other types, it is the best type due to the smallest size of the subsequent droplet and better reduction of fuel consumption [28].

Based on several previous studies, it can be concluded that the addition of nanoparticle additives can improve the properties of biodiesel. However, several parameters such as engine performance, combustion characteristics and smoke opacity are little discussed, especially when B30 is used. In this study, the addition of Al nanoparticles2Europa3B30 fuel is used to test engine performance, combustion characteristics and emissions. This test is designed to investigate combustion characteristics such as net heat release and cylinder pressure. Engine performance such as brake thermal efficiency and fuel efficiency. Check the transparency of the show.

2. Materials and methods

(Video) Biodiesel from Plant Vegetable Oils and its application as Engine fuel

Various test samples were used in the study, including biodiesel B30, B30+Al2Europa330 ppm, B30+Al2Europa350 ppm, B30+Al2Europa370 ppm, B30+Al2Europa390 ppm Each sample was tested on a diesel engine. GC-MS (Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry) and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) were also performed to determine compound levels in the fuel samples.

2.1 Experimental device

A 3.5kW diesel engine was used in this study, and engine specifications are shown in Table 1. Using multiple sensors in the engine, the computer automatically collects engine performance and combustion efficiency data via the IC-Engine application. Engine loads of 3, 5, 7 and 9 kg were used at a compression pressure of 16:1. Use an OPA-100 connected to a computer to download emission turbidity data. Data were collected 3 times for each sample to reduce data collection errors. The scheme of the experiment is shown in Figure 1.

11. png

The addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to a diesel engine improves the efficiency of biodiesel (6)

picture 1.experimental settings

Table 1.engine settings



Number of cylinders


Number of strokes



diesel engine

nominal power

3,5 kW

at 1500 rpm

cylinder diameter

87,5 mm


110 mm

Connecting rod length

234 mm

The compression ratio is very

12 do 18:1


20 mm

3. Results and discussion

The work presents the effect of mixing B30 with Al2Europa3The nanoparticles are then tested for engine performance, combustion efficiency and smoke opacity. GC-MS and FTIR tests are also available to determine compound levels in fuel samples. Table 3 shows the properties of fuel samples. All B30+Al grades with mixed viscosities2Europa3Increased compared to B30. Viscosity values ​​are in accordance with ASTM D6751.

Table 3.Properties of the fuel sample

a sample


calorific value


Kinematic viscosity (cSt)

Density at 40°C (g/ml)

flash point (°C)






aluminium B30+2Europa330 str./min





aluminium B30+2Europa350 str./min





aluminium B30+2Europa370 str./min





aluminium B30+2Europa390 str./min





3.1 Fourier transform infrared chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

3.1.1 B30

Based on the functional groups, the chemical composition of B30 was analyzed by FT-IR as shown in Figure 3. The detection frequency is 3464.15 1/cm and the stretching area of ​​N-H and N bonds is between 1598.99-1531.48 1/cm in the amide region. The frequency of 2924.09-2854.65 1/cm has a C-H stretch in the alkane and alkyl region, frequencies of 1460.11-1375.25 1/cm and 721.38 1/cm are in the same region, but the type is a CH bond The C=O stretching in ketones and esters has a frequency of 1745.58 1/cm, a frequency of 1168.86 1/cm in the alcohol C-O stretching region and a C-I stretching frequency of 351.04 1/cm in the alkyl halide region.

The content of individual compounds in B30 fuel is shown in Figure 4. They contain 9-octadecanoic acid 6.67%, docosane 10.26%, dodecane 2.57%, eicosane 3.18%, heptadecane 3.29%, hexadecane 3.83 %, hexadecanoic acid 17.42%, naphthalene 2.18%, 3.05% nonadecane, 2.67% octadecane, 4.54% octadecane, 1.9% pentadecane, 9.36% pentadecane, 3.36% tetradecane , 1.74% myristic acid, tridecane 4.45%, 9,12-octadecanoic acid 3 0.90%, 10-octanoic acid 15.63%. and several other compounds less than 1%.

3.1.2 Aluminium B30+2Europa3nanoparticles

Chemical composition B30+Al2Europa3The nanoparticles based on their functional groups were analyzed by FT-IR as shown in Figure 5. The detection frequency is 3464.15 1/cm, which is the N-H stretching area of ​​the amide, and the frequency is 1602.85-1539.20 of the N-H region of the amide bond, and the frequency is 2924.09-2854.65 1/cm, corresponding to the C-H stretching of the alkane and alkyl regions. 1460.11-1375.25 1/cm is the C-H bonding region of alkanes and alkyls, frequency 1745.58 1/cm is the C=O stretching region of ketones and esters, frequency is 1168.86 1/cm is the C-O stretching region of alcohols, frequency is 356.83 1/cm is the alkyl halide in the stretching zone C-I.

The content of the B30+Al mixture2Europa3The nanoparticle fuel can be seen in Figure 6, i.e. these are the compounds: 13-octadecenoic acid 16.82%, docosane 2.86%, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid 2.95%, benzene 1.98%, biphenyl 1.12%, docosane 2.85%, dodecane 3.41%, eicosane 1.99%, eicosane 1.33%, hexadecane 5.48%, hexadecanoic acid 14.01%, naphthalene 16.58%, nonadecane 1.96%, octadecane 1.85%, octadecanoic acid 3.31%, pentadecane decanoate 1.15%, pentadecane cane 4.90%, tetradecane 1.31%, tetradecane 2.59%, myristic acid 1.18% and partly undecanoic acid 4, 7% 1.18% partly 4% undecane 1.18%, other contents below 1% compounds.

The FT-IR and GC-MS studies show that hexadecane (C16H34) is a compound affecting fuel quality, which is closely related to the determination of diesel fuel quality [29]. Cetane compounds are blended with nanoparticles to produce a 5.48% higher percentage of fuel compared to B30 which is around 3.83%.

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The addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to a diesel engine improves the efficiency of biodiesel (7)

photo 3.Biodiesel FTIR B30

4. png

The addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to a diesel engine improves the efficiency of biodiesel (8)

Figure 4.GC-MS biodizel B30

5. png

The addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to a diesel engine improves the efficiency of biodiesel (9)

Figure 5.Infrared spectrum B30+Al2Europa3nanoparticles

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The addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to a diesel engine improves the efficiency of biodiesel (10)

Figure 6.GC-MS B30+Al2Europa3nanoparticles

3.2 Fuel consumption indicator

(Video) 2017/9/29 I²CNER Seminar Series : Prof. Yong Tae Kang

Specific fuel consumption (SFC) is an important parameter reflecting engine performance [30]. Figure 7 shows the SFC for the motor load. With a load of 3 kg, the value of B30+Al2Europa330 ppm is 43% less than B30, which has an SFC value of 0.71 kg/kWh. However, with a load of 5 B30+Al2Europa370 ppm fuel has the lowest SFC value of around 25% compared to B30. With a load of 7 kg, the B30 fuel value has the highest SFC value compared to all B30+nano fuel blends, and the SFC value of B30 is approximately 25% higher than B30+Al2Europa370 ppm of fuel oil. With a load of 9 kg, the value of SFC B30+Al2Europa3Fuel with 90 ppm content is the lowest at 0.23 kg/kWh, which is about 41% less than B30. Among all load variations, the SFC of pure B30 fuel was consistently higher than that of the B30+nano fuel blend. This is because the mixture of fuel and nanoparticles has a low viscosity value to prevent poor atomization. Due to the large size of the fuel droplets, poor atomization makes it difficult to burn the atomized fuel [31]. Air-fuel mixing and combustion are improved due to the presence of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have reactive surfaces that contribute to their reactivity as potential catalysts. The presence of nanoparticles in biodiesel blends increases the surface area to volume ratio, resulting in better catalysis and better combustion, resulting in lower fuel consumption [32-34].

7. png

The addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to a diesel engine improves the efficiency of biodiesel (11)

Figure 7.Specific fuel consumption at different engine loads

3.3 Net Heat Release

Net heat release (NHR) has a large impact on the course of the combustion process, and a high value of NHR will accelerate the time of fuel combustion, thus reducing fuel consumption [35]. Figure 8 shows the NHR to the crank angel under a 5 kg load. The NHR value of the B30 fuel was 21.02 J/deg, which is lower than that of the B30+nanoparticle fuel mixture. Top NHR B30+Al2Europa334.54J/deg at 30ppm, B30+Al2Europa350 ppm is 35.31 J/degree, B30+Al2Europa370 ppm, i.e. 36.21 J/degree, B30+Al2Europa390 ppm is 30.7 J/deg. The NHR is 41% higher than the NHR B30 value. This may be due to better fuel atomization, better fuel-air mixing, and a high surface-to-volume ratio of air-reactive nanoparticles. It should be noted that metal oxides are useful as fuel additives due to their thermal conductivity. The good thermal conductivity of the nanoparticles enables faster heat transfer in the fuel droplets, allowing the fuel to burn quickly. Smaller particle sizes are more effective in increasing the thermal conductivity of nanoparticles because the surface area to volume ratio of the particles increases with decreasing particle size [36-38].

8. png

The addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to a diesel engine improves the efficiency of biodiesel (12)

Number 8.Net heat release at the angle of the knee

3.4 Cylinder pressure

The self-ignition process depends on the pressure and heat in the cylinder, the higher the cylinder pressure, the faster the fuel burns [39]. Figure 9 shows the relationship between cylinder pressure and crankshaft angle at an engine load of 5 kg. Compared to the higher blend of B30+ nanoparticles, the B30 fuel achieved a peak cylinder pressure of 43.27 bar. B30+Al cylinder pressure2Europa330 ppm i 49,7 bara, B30+Al2Europa350 ppm i 43,77 bara, B30+Al2Europa370 ppm at 47.63 bar and B30+Al2Europa390 ppm is 50.08 bar. mixture of fuel and aluminum2Europa3Nanoparticles increase cylinder pressure by 13%. This is due to the fact that the thermal conductivity of nanoparticles increases the rate of evaporation of fuel droplets, and a greater supply of fuel to oxygen, a higher surface-to-volume ratio and a low viscosity value enable rapid combustion of fuel in mixtures containing nanoparticles [40]. ].

9. png

The addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to a diesel engine improves the efficiency of biodiesel (13)

Figure 9.The pressure in the cylinder at the angle of the crankshaft

3.5 Brake thermal efficiency

The thermal efficiency of braking (BTHE) is the ratio of the energy contained in the braking power to the energy of the input fuel in appropriate units [30]. The BTHE values ​​of the mixture of B30 concentration and nanoparticles at each load are shown in Figure 10. Under a load of 3 kg, the BTHE value of pure B30 reaches 14.54%, which is less than the value of B30+Al2Europa330 ppm, of which the highest BTHE value is 25.06%. Motor load 5kg has BTHE B30+Al2Europa370 ppm, which is more than all fuel blends with B30+ nanoparticles, and the BTHE value for B30 reached only 19.86%. The lowest BTHE B30 value was 23.11% with a load of 7 kg compared to the fuel mixture B30 + nanoparticles. With a motor load of 9 kg, the highest BTHE value is B30+Al2Europa390 ppm As can be seen from all engine load changes, the B30 + nanoparticles fuel mixture has a higher BTHE value than B30. This is because nanoparticles increase cylinder pressure and reduce fuel consumption. The addition of nanoparticles helps to disperse fuel droplets and disperse injected fuel. Nanoparticles have reactive surfaces that contribute to their reactivity as potential catalysts. Air-fuel mixing and combustion are improved due to the presence of nanoparticles. The addition of nanoparticles improves the dispersion of fuel droplets and the dispersion of the injected fuel. The addition of smaller droplets of nanoparticles, lower fuel viscosity and larger effective fuel surface [41].

10. png

The addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to a diesel engine improves the efficiency of biodiesel (14)

Figure 10.Thermal efficiency of the brake at various engine loads

3.6 Neprozirnost dima

Figure 11 illustrates the change in smoke opacity with load. Smoke transparency increases with engine load. It was observed that with a load of 3 kg, the smoke value of B30 fuel was about 79% higher than that of B30+Al2Europa390 ppm Opacity value B30+Al2Europa350 ppm under a load of 5 kg is 4.5%, about 65% less than B30 fuel. The percentage of opacity of each fuel was relatively constant and amounted to 5, 7 and 9 kg, where B30+Al2Europa330ppm over all types of fuels. Compared to 50 ppm B30+Al, smoke values ​​for B30 fuel were approximately 64% higher at 7 kg load and 79% higher at 9 kg load2Europa3. All load variations show that the opacity values ​​of a fuel mixture containing B30+ nanoparticles are usually lower than those of B30 fuel. This can occur as a result of microbursts resulting in smaller and flammable fuel atomized droplets [42], better atomization [43], more molecular oxygen and lower carbon content in the fuel (compared to B30 in comparison), resulting in better combustion. Emissions are immediately reduced due to burning more fuel during the combustion process and shortening the combustion time for better combustion [33].


The addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to a diesel engine improves the efficiency of biodiesel (15)

Figure 11.Exhaust gas opacity at various engine loads

4. at the end

The addition of nanoparticles improves diesel engine performance and emissions when mixed with B30 fuel. mixture of fuel and aluminum2Europa3Nanoparticles increase cylinder pressure by 13%. The net heat release is an increase of 41% compared to the NHR B30 value of 21.02 J/°. Changes in brake thermal efficiency under the influence of nanoparticles contained in B30. The BTHE value of the fuel mixture B30 + nanoparticles is higher than B30. Smoke values ​​from all load changes show that the fuel mixture with B30+ nanoparticles is lower than B30 fuel. Among all load variations, the SFC of the B30 fuel was consistently higher than that of the B30+nano fuel mixture.

The future regulatory implications of this research will be applied to biodiesel before it is sold to consumers. This research therefore contributes to reducing the impact of greenhouse gases on the environment and reducing the consumption of fossil fuels. In this work, the stability of the mixture of nanoparticles and B30 fuel was not investigated. As a suggestion for further research, the stability of nanoparticles should be investigated to determine how long a mixture of nanoparticles can be stable on fuel.







Biodiesel 30%


Brake thermal efficiency







Copper oxide2

Copper oxide




Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

spekrtometria masy

Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

greenhouse gases

greenhouse gases









Potassium hydroxide

Potassium hydroxide








net heat release


Brake thermal efficiency




potential hydrogen


copies / million

Securities Regulatory Commission

specific fuel consumption





(Video) Effect of Concentration of Al2O3 Nano Particles in Base Fluid on Thermal and Flow Properties


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What is the effect of nanoparticles on biodiesel? ›

The addition of nanoparticles in biodiesel decreases the ignition delay and accelerates earlier initiation of combustion which results in the lower heat release rate and cylinder pressure at the full load condition.

What is the influence of aluminum oxide nanoparticle additive on performance and exhaust emissions of diesel engine? ›

The increase of alumina nanoparticle percentage in diesel fuel produced the increases in cylinder pressure, cylinder temperature, heat release rate but the decreases in ignition delay and combustion duration were shown.

How is biodiesel more efficient than diesel? ›

Biodiesel in its pure, unblended form causes far less damage than petroleum diesel if spilled or released to the environment. It is safer than petroleum diesel because it is less combustible. The flashpoint for biodiesel is higher than 130°C, compared with about 52°C for petroleum diesel.

What nano additives are used in biodiesel? ›

Nano additives like Al2O3, CeO2, CuO, ZnO, Ag, CNT, MWCNT, and their effects are summarized in this review under different load conditions. The addition of Al2O3 gives better performance. It reduces 7.66% of BSFC at maximum load, increases BTE by 1.58% .

How does nanotechnology improve fuel efficiency? ›

Nanotechnology can do all this by increasing the effectiveness of catalysts. Catalysts can reduce the temperature required to convert raw materials into fuel or increase the percentage of fuel burned at a given temperature.

What is the impact of nanoparticles? ›

Chemical composition and surface characteristics – The toxicity of nanoparticles depends on their chemical composition, but also on the composition of any chemicals adsorbed onto their surfaces. However, the surfaces of nanoparticles can be modified to make them less harmful to health.

What is the role of nanoparticles in biofuels? ›

Nanomaterials have promising application in biofuel production due to their small size, large surface area-to-volume ratio, and good catalytic properties which are responsible for enhancing the production of various types of biofuel such as biohydrogen, biodiesel, and bioethanol.

What is the effect of mixed nano additives on performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel ethanol blend? ›

This is attributed to ethanol having lower carbon atoms in its chemical structure and also lower combustion temperatures resulting in reduced CO2. The addition of mixed nanoadditives increases the CO2 emission, and this is due to the presence of nanoparticles that improves the combustion rate.

What is the role of cerium oxide nanoparticles as diesel additives in combustion efficiency improvements and emission reduction? ›

Cerium oxide, as an efficient catalyst, can release oxygen and promote dehydrogenation on the particle surface to form active radicals such as OH−, which can facilitate the spontaneous combustion of diesel fuel.

How is biodiesel more efficient? ›

Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies.

Why is biodiesel less efficient? ›

Pure biodiesel contains less energy on a volumetric basis than petroleum diesel. Therefore, the higher the percentage of biodiesel (above 20%), the lower the energy content per gallon. High-level biodiesel blends can also impact engine warranties, gel in cold temperatures, and may present unique storage issues.

Why does biodiesel burn more efficiently? ›

Energy Content

Biodiesel is slightly denser than petrodiesel. However, it contains about 11 percent oxygen, whereas petrodiesel contains no oxygen. The oxygen doesn't contribute to the energy content, although it does help the fuel to burn more efficiently and with lower tailpipe emissions.

What are the best additives for biodiesel? ›

  • Bio Dee-Zol - all-purpose treatment for biodiesel blends to improve performance and solve biodiesel problems.
  • Bio Dee-Zol Plus - all the benefit of Bio Dee-Zol but with add cold flow protection.
  • Injector Cleaner - powerful one-tank injector cleaner.
  • Bellicide - kills microbes in biodiesel blends.

What is used to produce best quality of biodiesel? ›

Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils, yellow grease, used cooking oils, or animal fats. The fuel is produced by transesterification—a process that converts fats and oils into biodiesel and glycerin (a coproduct).

What is the best catalyst for biodiesel production? ›

Strong alkali catalysts such as NaOH, KOH, CH3ONa and CH3OK (potassium methoxide) are used for biodiesel production.

Why are nanoparticles more effective? ›

Nanoparticles have a very high surface area to volume ratio and make excellent catalysts.

How can we improve the efficiency of fuel? ›

Simply put, the less time you spend braking and accelerating, the less fuel you'll use.
  1. Accelerate and decelerate smoothly. ...
  2. Remove Excess Weight. ...
  3. Check your speed & use cruise control. ...
  4. Use your gears properly. ...
  5. Service & maintain your car. ...
  6. Avoid Unnecessary Idling. ...
  7. Use air con & heating functions wisely. ...
  8. Don't Coast.
Aug 25, 2022

What are the most common nanoparticles added to fuels? ›

Magnesium-Aluminium and Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles.

What are 3 advantages of nanoparticles? ›

  • Revolution in electronics and computing.
  • Energy sector: a. Nanotechnology will make solar power more economical. b. Energy storage devices will become more efficient.
  • Medical field: a. Manufacturing of smart drugs helps cure faster and without side effects. b.

What are some uses and benefits of nanoparticles? ›

Nanoparticles are now being used in the manufacture of scratchproof eyeglasses, crack- resistant paints, anti-graffiti coatings for walls, transparent sunscreens, stain-repellent fabrics, self-cleaning windows and ceramic coatings for solar cells.

What are three advantages and disadvantages of nanoparticles and nanotechnology? ›

Nanotechnology offers the potential for new and faster kinds of computers, more efficient power sources and life-saving medical treatments. Potential disadvantages include economic disruption and possible threats to security, privacy, health and the environment.

What is the role of nanoparticles? ›

Nanoparticles (NPs) play a key role in enhancing drought stress (DS) tolerance in plants. NPs reduce MDA accumulation, maintain membrane stability, induce the expression of stress-related proteins, improve nutrient and water uptake, increase photosynthesis, and increase grain yield and harvest index.

What are the advantages of nanomaterials in fuel cell? ›

The utilization of nanomaterials in various components of fuel cell (catalyst, electrolyte/membrane, electrodes) can defeat many restrictions such as expensive materials and fuel crossover that hinder its commercialization.

What is the application of nanoparticles in energy production? ›

Nanotechnology is being used to reduce the cost of catalysts used in fuel cells. These catalysts produce hydrogen ions from fuel such as methanol. Nanotechnology is also being used to improve the efficiency of membranes used in fuel cells to separate hydrogen ions from other gases, such as oxygen.

What affects the quality of biodiesel? ›

Influence of the composition and acid ester content fatty raw materials on the properties of biodiesel: The composition and the content of fatty acid esters directly influence the properties of biodiesel, and consequently the quality and performance as fuel.

Why nanoparticles are used in fuels? ›

Nanoparticles have a relatively large surface-area-to-volume ratio, making them ideal catalysts. The nanoparticles disperse throughout the fuel and encourage better air-to-fuel mixing and enhance chemical reactivity during combustion, leading to better performance, combustion, and quality of emissions.

What is the main problem in using biodiesel? ›

A familiar problem

The main problem is that biofuels are less stable than petrodiesel, and they deteriorate over time. Light, temperature and humidity increase the rate of deterioration. "Biofuels contain oxygen compounds, which can lead to oxidation if the fuel is not processed and stored properly.

How can we increase biodiesel production? ›

Basic catalysts, like sodium or potassium hydroxide, are good at increasing the rate of the reaction for producing biodiesel. Another option is a sodium methylate (also known as sodium methoxide) solution already dissolved in methanol.

What is the weakness of biodiesel? ›

One disadvantage of biodiesel is its incompatibility with cold regions. Researchers discovered biodiesel turns into a gel at low temperatures. Drivers are unable to use the fuel source in cold climates. Consumers can only use biodiesel as a fuel source in warm climates.

What are the disadvantages of biodiesel over diesel? ›

Disadvantages of Biodiesel
  • Variation in Quality of Biodiesel. ...
  • Not Suitable for Use in Low Temperatures. ...
  • Biodiesel Could Harm the Rubber Houses of Some Engines. ...
  • Biodiesel is Way More Expensive than Petroleum. ...
  • Food Shortage. ...
  • Increased use of Fertilizers. ...
  • Clogging in Engine. ...
  • Regional Suitability.

What is the advantage of nanoparticles? ›

Advantages of Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology can also benefit the energy sector. The development of more effective energy-producing, energy-absorbing, and energy storage products in smaller and more efficient devices is possible with this technology.


1. Nanofarming (with algae): Multifunctional Mesoporous Nanoparticles for Biofuel Production
(Illinois Sustainable Technology Center)
2. Designing clean and efficient sustainable future fuels | Spring Into STEM
(University College London, Faculty of Engineering)
3. Webinar - Out of the Lab! Converting Poplar into Biofuels: Graduate and Postdoc Research
(Hardwood Biofuels)
4. Class: Fuel Fundamentals
5. Bio-Diesel, Preparation, Properties & Applications
6. Thermophysical Properties of Nanofluids and its Applications
(WEmpower Pakistan)
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